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  • Polysaccharides - NMDCAT

    Polysaccharides - NMDCAT

    Polysaccharides are complex biomacromolecules that are made up chains of monosaccharides. The bonds that form these chains are glycosidic bonds. Commonly found monomer units in polysaccharides are glucose, fructose, mannose and galactose which are simple sugars.


    Types of Polysaccharides

    Polysaccharides can be broadly classified into two classes:
    • Homo-polysaccharides – are made up of one type of monosaccharide units. ex: cellulose, starch, glycogen.
    • Hetero-polysaccharides
    ...
    See more | Go to post

  • Proteins - NMDCAT

    Proteins - NMDCAT

    Proteins


    Here’s a fact that will boggle your mind. There is a retinal protein named after the cartoon character Pikachu! It is called Pikachurin. In fact, proteins are known to have unique names. Proteins are complex biomolecules that are made up of smaller units known as amino acids. Let us learn about them in detail.


    Structure of Proteins


    Due to different rearrangement of amino acids, the structure of proteins divides into four types...
    See more | Go to post

  • Biomacromolecules - NMDCAT

    Biomacromolecules - NMDCAT

    We all know that molecules make up every substance on the planet. Even in our bodies, our cells produce molecules. These molecules are calle
    biomolecules. And the more complex and larger biomolecules are called biomacromolecules. Let us learn more about them.

    Cell Processes

    Proteins and their Properties

    Introduction to Enzymes

    Biomacromolecules


    Biomolecules or biological molecules are substances which are produced by the...
    See more | Go to post

  • Basic Biology (Life Sciences) - NMDCAT - ETEA Notes

    Basic Biology (Life Sciences) - NMDCAT - ETEA Notes

    Biology is the natural science that involves the study of life and living organisms. Without biology, it would be difficult to understand the anatomy of humans, animals, and other creatures. Let’s find out more about basic biology and life sciences. Introduction to Life Sciences Every living organism has different and their own characteristics. Biology, in simple terms, is the study of life and Life Sciences are basically the study of biology. The life sciences comprise of the study of science t...
    See more | Go to post

  • Cell structure and function - introduction to cell - NMDCAT Notes - Biology

    Cell structure and function - introduction to cell - NMDCAT Notes - Biology

    Introduction to Cell


    Ever thought what living organisms composed of? Or rather what is it that makes us living beings? Here comes the introduction to Cell. The cell is the smallest structural unit of a living organism. So, everything that we are able to do is possible because of the 10 trillion cells present in our body. The number is huge and of course, the function performed by them is even bigger. In this topic here, we’ll introduce you to cells. Let’s begin.
    ...
    See more | Go to post

  • The Structures of DNA and RNA

    The Structures of DNA and RNA

    The discovery that DNA is the prime genetic molecule, carrying all the hereditary information within chromosomes, immediately focused attention on its structure. It was hoped that knowledge of the structure would reveal how DNA carries the genetic messages that are replicated when chromosomes divide to produce two identical copies of themselves. During the late 1940s and early 1950s, several research groups in the United States and in Europe engaged in serious efforts—both cooperative and rival—to...
    See more | Go to post

  • The main frontiers of fundamental science and new branches of physics | FSC Physics Notes | ETEA Preparation

    There are three main frontiers of fundamental science.
    • The world of extremely large (i.e. Universe)
    • The world of the extremely small (i.e. particles such as electrons, protons, neutrons, mesons and others)
    • Thee world of middle-sized things from molecule at one extreme to the Earth of the other). It is the world of complex matter.

    By the end of 19th century many physicists started believing that everything about physics has been discovered. However, about the beginning of the 20th century...
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  • The Mechanism of Breathing (Ventilation) | FSC/HSSC Notes on Respiration | ETEA Preparation

    The Mechanism of Breathing (Ventilation) | FSC/HSSC Notes on Respiration | ETEA Preparation

    The lungs themselves neither draw in air nor push it out. The diaphragm, abdominal muscles and the intercostals muscles accomplish the expansion and contraction of the lungs. The diaphragm (meaning, partition) is a large dome of skeletal muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from abdominal cavity. Theta are two sets of intercostal, muscles between each pair of ribs: the external intercostals and the internal intercostals.

    The muscle fibres run diagonally but in opposite direction...
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  • Main structural features and functions of the components of human respiratory system | ETEA/MDCAT Preparation | FSC

    The body system which is responsible for the exchange of gases between body fluid and outer environment is called respiratory system.The human respiratory system can be divided into Lower two regions, upper respiratory tract and lower respiratory tract.




    Upper Respiratory Tract

    The upper respiratory tract includes nostrils, nasal cavity and pharynx.

    Nose

    The nose is only externally visible part of the respiratory system. Human...
    See more | Go to post

  • How I Passed My Etea Exam - Key Points to consider

    How I Passed My Etea Exam - Key Points to consider

    SSC and HSSC Exams were a hectic on its own but the ETEA exam is a sad grey of a million other splashes.. a burden of its own kind. Deciding my future, my career and even my worth?! Am I good enough? With each passing day my heart keeps sinking deeper and deeper. Until I’m seated on that chair and my future looks back at me in the form of… wait… what …mcqs?

    I’m not going to scare you, there is no portion of Pak-studies/ Urdu and there are absolutely no subjective type questions.
    ...
    See more | Go to post
    Last edited by Ejaz; 07-22-2020, 12:16 PM.
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  • Polysaccharides - NMDCAT
    by webmaster
    Polysaccharides are complex biomacromolecules that are made up chains of monosaccharides. The bonds that form these chains are glycosidic bonds. Commonly found monomer units in polysaccharides are glucose, fructose, mannose and galactose which are simple sugars.


    Types of Polysaccharides

    Polysaccharides can be broadly classified into two classes:
    • Homo-polysaccharides – are made up of one type of monosaccharide units. ex: cellulose, starch, glycogen.
    • Hetero-polysaccharides
    ...
    11-05-2020, 03:22 PM
  • Proteins - NMDCAT
    by webmaster
    Proteins


    Here’s a fact that will boggle your mind. There is a retinal protein named after the cartoon character Pikachu! It is called Pikachurin. In fact, proteins are known to have unique names. Proteins are complex biomolecules that are made up of smaller units known as amino acids. Let us learn about them in detail.


    Structure of Proteins


    Due to different rearrangement of amino acids, the structure of proteins divides into four types...
    11-05-2020, 03:19 PM
  • Biomacromolecules - NMDCAT
    by webmaster
    We all know that molecules make up every substance on the planet. Even in our bodies, our cells produce molecules. These molecules are calle
    biomolecules. And the more complex and larger biomolecules are called biomacromolecules. Let us learn more about them.

    Cell Processes

    Proteins and their Properties

    Introduction to Enzymes

    Biomacromolecules


    Biomolecules or biological molecules are substances which are produced by the...
    11-05-2020, 03:15 PM
  • Basic Biology (Life Sciences) - NMDCAT - ETEA Notes
    by webmaster
    Biology is the natural science that involves the study of life and living organisms. Without biology, it would be difficult to understand the anatomy of humans, animals, and other creatures. Let’s find out more about basic biology and life sciences. Introduction to Life Sciences Every living organism has different and their own characteristics. Biology, in simple terms, is the study of life and Life Sciences are basically the study of biology. The life sciences comprise of the study of science t...
    11-05-2020, 03:07 PM
  • Cell structure and function - introduction to cell - NMDCAT Notes - Biology
    by webmaster
    Introduction to Cell


    Ever thought what living organisms composed of? Or rather what is it that makes us living beings? Here comes the introduction to Cell. The cell is the smallest structural unit of a living organism. So, everything that we are able to do is possible because of the 10 trillion cells present in our body. The number is huge and of course, the function performed by them is even bigger. In this topic here, we’ll introduce you to cells. Let’s begin.
    ...
    11-05-2020, 01:29 PM
  • The Structures of DNA and RNA
    by Ejaz
    The discovery that DNA is the prime genetic molecule, carrying all the hereditary information within chromosomes, immediately focused attention on its structure. It was hoped that knowledge of the structure would reveal how DNA carries the genetic messages that are replicated when chromosomes divide to produce two identical copies of themselves. During the late 1940s and early 1950s, several research groups in the United States and in Europe engaged in serious efforts—both cooperative and rival—to...
    08-13-2020, 04:00 PM
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